SEC Filings

RANGE RESOURCES CORP filed this Form 10-Q on 07/30/2018
Entire Document


Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. There are three approaches for measuring the fair value of assets and liabilities: the market approach, the income approach and the cost approach, each of which includes multiple valuation techniques. The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities. The income approach uses valuation techniques to measure fair value by converting future amounts, such as cash flows or earnings, into a single present value amount using current market expectations about those future amounts. The cost approach is based on the amount that would currently be required to replace the service capacity of an asset. This is often referred to as current replacement cost. The cost approach assumes that the fair value would not exceed what it would cost a market participant to acquire or construct a substitute asset of comparable utility, adjusted for obsolescence.

The fair value accounting standards do not prescribe which valuation technique should be used when measuring fair value and do not prioritize among the techniques. These standards establish a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used in applying the various valuation techniques. Inputs broadly refer to the assumptions that market participants use to make pricing decisions, including assumptions about risk. Level 1 inputs are given the highest priority in the fair value hierarchy while Level 3 inputs are given the lowest priority. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:


Level 1 – Observable inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.


Level 2 – Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data. These are inputs other than quoted prices in active markets included in Level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date.


Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability being measured. These inputs reflect management’s best estimates of the assumptions market participants would use in determining fair value. Our Level 3 measurements consist of instruments using standard pricing models and other valuation methods that utilize unobservable pricing inputs that are significant to the overall fair value.

Valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs are favored. Assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest priority level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the placement of assets and liabilities within the levels of the fair value hierarchy.

Significant uses of fair value measurements include:


impairment assessments of long-lived assets;


impairment assessments of goodwill; and


recorded value of derivative instruments and trading securities.

The need to test long-lived assets and goodwill can be based on several indicators, including a significant reduction in prices of natural gas, oil and condensate, NGLs, sustained declines in our common stock, unfavorable adjustments to reserves, significant changes in the expected timing of production, other changes to contracts or changes in the regulatory environment in which a property is located.