|RANGE RESOURCES CORP filed this Form 10-K on 02/22/2017|
at ten percent. Copies of the summary reserve reports prepared by our independent petroleum consultants are included as an exhibit to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The technical person at each independent petroleum consulting firm responsible for reviewing the reserve estimates presented herein meets the requirements regarding qualifications, independence, objectivity and confidentiality as set forth in the Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information promulgated by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. We maintain an internal staff of petroleum engineers and geoscience professionals who work closely with our independent petroleum consultants to ensure the integrity, accuracy and timeliness of data furnished during the reserve audit process. Throughout the year, our technical team meets periodically with representatives of our independent petroleum consultants to review properties and discuss methods and assumptions. While we have no formal committee specifically designated to review reserves reporting and the reserve estimation process, our senior management reviews and approves significant changes to our proved reserves. We provide historical information to our consultants for our largest producing properties such as ownership interest, natural gas, NGLs and oil production, well test data, commodity prices and operating and development costs. Our consultants perform an independent analysis and differences are reviewed with our Senior Vice President of Reservoir Engineering and Economics. In some cases, additional meetings are held to review identified reserve differences. The reserve auditor estimates of proved reserves and the pretax present value of such reserves discounted at 10% did not differ from our estimates by more than 10% in the aggregate. However, when compared on a lease-by-lease, field-by-field or area-by-area basis, some of our estimates may be greater than those of our auditor and some may be less than the estimates of the reserve auditors. When such differences do not exceed 10% in the aggregate, our reserve auditors are satisfied that the proved reserves and pretax present value of such reserves discounted at 10% are reasonable and will issue an unqualified opinion. Remaining differences are not resolved due to the limited cost benefit of continuing such analysis.
Historical variances between our reserve estimates and the aggregate estimates of our independent petroleum consultants have been less than 5%. All of our reserve estimates are reviewed and approved by our Senior Vice President of Reservoir Engineering and Economics, Mr. Alan Farquharson, who reports directly to our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer. Our Senior Vice President of Reservoir Engineering and Economics holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the Pennsylvania State University. Before joining Range, he held various technical and managerial positions with Amoco, Hunt Oil and Union Pacific Resources and has more than thirty-five years of engineering experience in the oil and gas industry. During the year, our reserves group may also perform separate, detailed technical reviews of reserve estimates for significant acquisitions or for properties with problematic indicators such as excessively long lives, sudden changes in performance or changes in economic or operating conditions. We did not file any reports during the year ended December 31, 2016 with any federal authority or agency with respect to our estimate of natural gas and oil reserves.
Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, natural gas liquids and oil that by analysis of geoscience and engineering data can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. The term “reasonable certainty” implies a high degree of confidence that the quantities of natural gas, NGLs and oil actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate. To achieve reasonable certainty, our internal technical staff employs technologies that have been demonstrated to yield results with consistency and repeatability. The technologies and economic data used in the estimation of our proved reserves include, but are not limited to, empirical evidence through drilling results and well performance, well logs, geologic maps and available downhole and production data, seismic data, well test data and reservoir simulation modeling.
Reporting of Natural Gas Liquids
We produce NGLs as part of the processing of our natural gas. The extraction of NGLs in the processing of natural gas reduces the volume of natural gas available for sale. At December 31, 2016, NGLs represented approximately 31% of our total proved reserves on an mcf equivalent basis. NGLs are products priced by the gallon (and sold by the barrel) to the end-user. In reporting proved reserves and production of NGLs, we have included production and reserves in barrels. Prices for a barrel of NGLs in 2016 averaged approximately 67% lower than the average prices for equivalent volumes of oil. We report all production information related to natural gas net of the effect of any reduction in natural gas volumes resulting from the processing of NGLs. As of December 31, 2016, we have 308.9 Mmbbls of ethane reserves (1,367 Bcfe) associated with our Marcellus Shale properties, which are included in NGLs proved reserves and represent 49% of our total NGLs reserves. We currently include ethane in our proved reserves which match volumes to be delivered under our existing long-term, extendable ethane contracts.